Avram Goldstein: The Founder of Molecular Pharmacology
As the Chair of the Department of Pharmacology with responsibility for training medical students in the use of drugs, he was fascinated by the kinetics of drug action. He and his wife Dody developed the plateau principle, which emerged from the recognition that the time to steady state for any drug administered continuously or repeatedly was dependent only on its rate of elimination. These developments drove his increasing desire to see the discipline of pharmacology, both in research and in medical and graduate education, as a science with a strong mechanistic and theoretical underpinning.
Avram was present in Moscow in 1961 when Marshall Nirenberg described his elucidation of the genetic code. With these seminal developments, Avram concluded that the time was ripe for the establishment of a journal devoted to mechanistic aspects of drug action at a molecular level.
Avram was able to persuade ASPET to publish the new journal, which would be called Molecular Pharmacology. “Suitable papers are those which describe applications of the methods of biochemistry, biophysics, genetics and molecular biology to pharmacologic or toxicologic problems…”
Avram, together with his Stanford faculty colleagues Lew Aronow and Sumner Kalman, were working on Principles of Drug Action (Goldstein et al., 1968), a pharmacology textbook that was new for its time in focusing only on basic principles underlying drug action and the longer-term responses of the body to the presence of drugs.
DRUG METABOLISM RESEARCH HAS A 61 YEAR HISTORY
VLA Comment: The field of Pharmacogenomics, Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacogenomics has a 61 YEAR HISTORY well accepted research concerning drug metabolism. Education in this field of research has been actively suppressed by Pharma. Anonymous sources in the field of education for medical students tells us that this information is actively suppressed as the pharmacuetical industry would loose billions and billions of dollars if the public knew. Moreso medical students and hospital psychiatrists and doctors in general from Pediatricians ot Oconologists have virtually no knowledge or education of drug metabolism, yet they all provide prescriptions that are contraindicated, causing Medication (drug) induced psychosis. 90% of drugs need an active and mature liver system of Cytochrome P450 enzymes to metabolize and eliminate them from an individual’s body. A substantial percentage of Caucasians, Asians, Blacks have no activity to metabolize these modern drugs. The results – increased (apparent) psychosis.
INCREASE IN PSYCHOSIS DIAGNOSES
The increase in psychosis diagnosis is actually the agressive poisoning of humanity by uneducated doctors from the cradle to the grave. The increase in (apparent) mental illness and special needs is due to the inability of many individuals to eliminate, from the body, modern drugs (and streets drugs) such as SSRIs vaccine excipients.
VACCINES, THE BASIS OF MENTAL ILLNESS DIAGNOSES
Vaccines contain excipients that need a mature superfamily of Cytochrome P450 in order to be metabolize and successfully eliminated from the body of infants and children. The damage done to the physiology of a one hour old infant, injected with Aluminum (which interferes in Cyp 450 metabolism in the Hep B and Vitamin K shots), and other vaccine excipients testifies to the basic underpinnings of the epidemic in Autism, ADHD, ADD, OCD, BiPolar,neurological, mitachondrial issues, depression, anxiety, panic attacks. The misdiagnosis of mental illness by uneducated medical professionals who extensively prescribe psychiatric drugs and the push to vaccinate, to eliminate parental choice, to eliminate vaccine waivers appears to be an organized effort to debilite the entire emerging generations of humanity through the suppression of this Pharmacogenomic knowedge. Note: There is no mandated continuing education in drug metabolism for practicing physicans; virtually no education for medical students; yet the prescrbing of medications and the push for vaccine compliance, school shootings, homicides and suicides, special needs education, is at an all time high.
CCHR Newsletter: Overview and layman understanding of Cyp 450, Pharmacogenetics, vaccines, psyche drugs,homicide, suicide.
Below, the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics chronicled the discoveries and provided communications to advance the science of drug metabolism.
The Development of Drug Metabolism Research as Expressed in the Publications of ASPET: Part 2, 1959–1983
Patrick J. Murphy College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana Received February 18, 2008; accepted February 27, 2008
In 25 years, (now 35 years) drug metabolism research went from using subcellular
particles of undefined content to an understanding of metabolism
at the molecular level. The discoveries of cytochrome P450, en-
zyme induction, reactive intermediates, and genetic polymor-
phisms were milestones in the field. New publications from the
American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeu-
tics chronicled the discoveries and provided communications to
advance the science of drug metabolism.
THE DISCOVERY OF CYTOCHROME P450 (1957)
The discovery of P450 and its function evolved from observations by Ryan and Engel that C-21 hydroxylations of progesterone and hydroxylated progesterones were catalyzed by a CO inhibitable en-zyme in the adrenal cortex (Ryan and Engel, 1957). They character-ized the reaction as belonging to the class of enzymes categorized by
Mason as “mixed-function oxidases” (Mason, 1957) and by Hayaishias “oxygenases” (Hayaishi, 1962).
THE ROLE OF GLUTATHIONE (depleted in AUTISM?)
The role of glutathione as a precursor of mercapturic acids was confirmed in 1959 (Bray et al., 1959a,b), 80 years after the discovery of these important elimination products by Baumann and Preuss (1879). In the following 25 years, there were over 150 papers in the ASPET journals referring to aspects of glutathione in metabolism. The role of glutathione as a scavenger of reactive intermediates was ofprimary interest, as exemplified by the finding of the glutathione conjugate of acetaminophen by Hinson et al. (1982) or the formation of mercapturic acids from cyclohexene epoxide in the rat (van Bla-deren et al., 1981).